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Requiem - Butt- Dunedin Consort


hybride superaudio CD

Componist Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791) Nummer 147994 Uitgever Linn Records Omschrijving

Mozart's own Requiem Mass in St Michael's Church on 10 December 1791 seems to have been organized partly by the impresario, librettist and actor (and thus Mozart's close collaborator in Die Zauberflöte), Emanuel Schikaneder. The church was specifically associated with the court, its musicians and the operatic community. Both the available lists of
musicians and the parts for the Misericordias point to an ensemble of eight singers, single wind and single lower strings with doubled violins. It may well be that the opera musicians came up with instruments that were not normally available, specifically the two basset horns. The doubling of vocal lines in contrapuntal music by trombones was standard practice, evident in the Misericordias parts, and is particularly effective when there are only two singers per part. While it is likely that trumpets and timpani would have been available for Mozart's fully finished introit, it is not clear whether the parts for these instruments in the ‘Kyrie' were written before 10 December 1791, so they are omitted in the small, ‘church' version of the ‘Kyrie'.

For the 1793 performance of the completed Requiem, the surviving parts of several of Mozart's Handel performances give us a reasonable indication of the numbers involved. These performances had also been promoted by van Swieten with the same society and, indeed, Mozart's version of Acis and Galatea was performed in the same venue as the Requiem, the Jahn-Saal in Vienna. The vocal forces therefore comprise the four soloists plus up to three ripienists and the strings are provided with a relatively generous six violins to a part, with slightly smaller numbers for the lower parts. The sorts of soloist available in the Handel performances were very clearly associated with dramatic performance (for instance, Mozart's sister-in-law, Aloysia Weber, was a regular member of the ensemble), which might suggest that the choruses benefited from a relatively soloistic form of delivery. One particular issue about the venue was the fact that no organ was available in the hall. While the role of a keyboard continuo is less vital here than in earlier church styles, it is unlikely that it would have been missed out entirely. The 1793 performance may well thus have employed a fortepiano for the purpose (a reference survives for the use of a fortepiano in a performance of the Requiem in Stockholm, some ten years later).

This project would not have been possible without the wonderful support of Dr David Black, who gave me early access to his new edition of the Süssmayr version of the Requiem and also to his seminal dissertation on the church-music culture of Mozart's Vienna. He has pointed me in the right direction in numerous ways, particularly in relation to the sources for the size and type of forces. Thanks are also due to David Lee for preparing the performing edition of the Misericordias from the original St Michael's Church parts.
© John Butt, 2014

Recording Information:
Recorded at Greyfriar's Kirk, Edinburgh, UK, 15-19 September 2013
Produced and recorded by Philip Hobbs
Assistant engineering by Robert Cammidge
Post-production by Julia Thomas
Design by Gareth Jones

Composer: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Requiem in D minor, K. 626
Dunedin Consort

1. I. Requiem aeternam 04:28
2. II. Kyrie 02:32
3. III. Dies irae 01:49
4. IV. Tuba mirum 03:18
5. V. Rex tremendae 01:57
6. VI. Recordare 04:51
7. VII. Confutatis 02:34
8. VIII. Lacrimosa 03:03
9. IX. Domine Jesu 03:15
10. X. Hostias 02:18
11. XI. Quam olim Abrahae 02:18
12. XII. Sanctus 01:35
13. XIII. Benedictus & Osanna 05:17
14. XIV. Agnus Dei 02:56
15. XV. Lux aeterna 02:45
16. XVI. Cum sanctis 02:34
17. Misericordias Domini in D minor, K. 222 - 'Offertorium de tempore' 07:09
18. Requiem in D minor, K. 626 - I. Requiem aeternam (Reconstruction of Requiem performance at Mozart's funeral, 1791) 04:29
19. Requiem in D minor, K. 626 - II. Kyrie (Reconstruction of Requiem performance at Mozart's funeral, 1791) 02:46
Total Running Time 62 minutes

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